“Frome in Palestine 1917 – 1948” was an exhibition held between 18-31 October 2017 at the Silk Mill in Frome, a small but innovative town in Somerset. The exhibition was the culmination of a long-term project by Frome Friends of Palestine to mark the centenary of both the Balfour Declaration and General Allenby’s march on Jerusalem in 1917.
To some, the annexation of Palestine seemed like the culmination of a dream, but Britain’s thirty-year rule of Palestine rapidly became a nightmare. Conflicting and contradictory promises were made to both Arabs and Jews. In November 1917, the British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour pledged to create “a national home for the Jewish people” in Palestine, “it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non Jewish communities in Palestine”. The so-called Balfour Declaration was to have profound and lasting effects.
Large numbers of people took part in Britain’s Palestine experience. Some came from Frome. Others had descendants who now live in Frome. The exhibition was designed to ground this conflict by telling the story of the town’s connection with Palestine, from the heady days of the Palestine Exploration Fund, through the era of religious enthusiasts, refugees and tourists, the soldiers who served and sometimes died in the Great War, to the public servants and policemen caught up in a conflict not of their own making, who tried to make the Mandate work.
It was not an easy exhibition, but Britain’s time in Palestine is not an easy subject. By putting Frome people at the heart of it, we sought to acknowledge their often-forgotten contribution, and at the same time to help local people today to get a better sense of the roots of conflict in the much-abused Holy Land.
Putting the exhibition together was an enormous amount of work, but it did work. Because of the local connection, we had lots of visitors who would never normally come near an event like this, and it is a transferable concept. Since so many British people served in Palestine, every town or city will have its crop of relatives. There will be plenty of Palestine-related centenaries coming up over the next few years. Frome’s pioneering fusion of local, national and international history could work for other towns as well. If you would like help or advice on how to organise a similar project in your town, please contact us: email@example.com
Click on the links below to view the panels. Each panel will open in a new window.
Britain in Palestine
The exhibition starts with a sequence of twenty background panels, outlining the history of Palestine and the British mandate up until 1948. Most of the information in this section came from the important ‘Britain in Palestine’ exhibition curated by Anne Lineen, which won much acclaim when it was hosted at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) in London in 2012. Anne generously let us make full use of her research, and was closely involved in the editing process for this exhibition.
1. The Land of Palestine. People and History
Palestine, a name that came from ‘Philistia’, the ancient coastal kingdom of the Philistines, is part of the farming region known as the Fertile Crescent, and has had many rulers over the centuries. From the sixteenth century to 1917 Palestine was part of the Ottoman Empire. This succession of rulers and overlords throughout Palestine’s history brought new cultures and beliefs. However, over these thousands of years the people of Palestine continued to farm their land, trade their crops and build their towns and villages. Click on the link below to see this panel:
2. The Land of Palestine. Economy
Palestine’s economy was based on produce from the land, grown around the hundreds of villages scattered throughout the country. The towns developed as centres of trade and culture, and along the Mediterranean coast the ports of Jaffa, Gaza and Acre were linked to a global trading network. Click on the link below to see this panel:
3. The Holy Land
To Jews, Christians and Muslims throughout the world Palestine is their Holy Land; a place central to the founding of their religion. The Holy books of the Hebrew Scriptures, the Christian Bible and the Qu’ran all describe events of profound importance to the three faiths which took place in Palestine. During the nineteenth century, European religious zeal combined with nationalism and imperial ambition. Every major power sought to install its own brand of Christianity in Jerusalem. Click on the link below to see this panel:
4. A Land Without a People?
To some, familiarity with the geography of the Bible gave them a strong sense of ownership over Palestine. This board looks at the work of the Palestine Exploration Fund, and the views of its committee member, Lord Shaftesbury, who hoped that helping Jews to move to Palestine would lead them to convert to Christianity. Click on the link below to see this panel:
5. War in Palestine
When war broke out in 1914, Palestine’s Ottoman rulers sided with Germany. Palestinian loyalties, initially strong, were undermined by growing Turkish and Arabic nationalism, and the horror of the war itself. Over 100,000 people died, were killed or exiled. Click on the link below to see this panel:
6. The Promises of the First World War
The British High Commissioner in Cairo, Sir Henry McMahon approached Sherif Hussein of Mecca, and offered British recognition and protection for an independent Arab kingdom if he supported Britain in the war. Aided by TE Lawrence ‘of Arabia’, Hussein led a successful two-year revolt, and in 1918 the Ottomans were driven out of Palestine. Click on the link below to see this panel:
7. The Sykes-Picot Agreement
At the same time, British and French diplomats agreed to divide Ottoman territories between them… Click on the link below to see this panel:
8. The Balfour Declaration
Chaim Weizmann, a leader of the Zionist Organisation which wanted ‘to create for the Jewish people a home in Palestine secured by public law’, managed to convince Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour, and the War Cabinet that a British gesture of support for Zionism would win them a powerful ally. On November 2 1917, Balfour made his famous ‘Declaration’, pledging British support for the Zionist project. Click on the link below to see this panel:
9. Jewish Opposition to Zionism
Many Jewish leaders at the time were unsympathetic to Zionism, which they felt would increase antisemitism within Europe. Edwin Montagu, the only Jewish member of the Cabinet, warned that “Palestine will become the world’s ghetto” Click on the link below to see this panel:
10. The European Peace Settlement. Arab Rights and Hopes
Arab leaders, alarmed at reports of the Balfour Declaration and the threat this might pose for their hoped-for independence, organised meetings and petitions to protest at Britain’s adoption of Zionism. At the suggestion of US President Woodrow Wilson, a commission was sent to the Middle East to find out how the people wanted to be governed. It recommended that a united Arab kingdom should be established under a temporary American mandate, and that the Balfour Declaration should be significantly modified. Britain and France refused to acknowledge its findings. Click on the link below to see this panel:
11. The Mandate for Palestine
In 1923, the Council of the newly-formed League of Nations granted Britain a mandate to run Palestine. Its main provisions supported the establishment of the Jewish National Home by facilitating Jewish immigration and encouraging Jewish settlement. The Arabs of Palestine were not even mentioned. Click on the link below to see this panel:
12. The Jewish National Home
In preparation for the eventual Jewish state, Zionists in Palestine organised the Jewish community (yishuv) into a separate self-governing society with control of its own land, economy, education, welfare and political structures. From 1929 the Jewish Agency was effectively the government for the Jews in Palestine. Click on the link below to see this panel:
13. Colonial Rule
The Arab population of Palestine came under direct British rule. Palestine was less democratic under the British than it had been under the Ottomans. Click on the link below to see this panel:
14. Arab Opposition to Zionism
Arabs had been wary of Zionism from its beginnings. To them, the Balfour Declaration and the terms of the Mandate only confirmed long held fears. British support for the Jewish National Home introduced tensions between long-standing Arab and Jewish communities. Violence erupted in August 1929 when Arabs attacked and killed Jews in Jerusalem, Hebron and Safed as the Palestine Police and British troops struggled to restore order. Click on the link below to see this panel:
In October 1930 the British government at last acknowledged that it had an equal obligation to both Arabs and Jews and was poised to recommend limitations on land sales and Jewish immigration. Following Zionist criticism, however, Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald refused to implement them. After 1933, Jewish persecution in Nazi Germany caused a sharp rise in the number of Jewish immigrants to Palestine. Alarmed, the Arab Higher Committee called a national general strike in April 1936, and bands of rebel fighters attacked British forces and Jewish settlements. Click on the link below to see this panel:
In September 1937 Arab terrorists assassinated a senior British officer. Nationalist leaders were arrested and martial law was imposed, but by October 1938 Arab rebels had taken control of large parts of the country. Major General Bernard Montgomery was sent to put down the rebellion, with 25,000 extra British troops and police. By June 1939 the rebellion had been effectively crushed. Click on the link below to see this panel:
With another European war looming, new limits on Jewish immigration to Palestine were introduced in order to win back Arab support. Zionists accused the British government of abandoning the Balfour Declaration. Militant groups such as the Irgun Zvai Leumi targeted symbols of British authority in Palestine, most notably in the devastating attack on the King David Hotel in July 1946, in which 91 people were killed. Zionist organisations smuggled in refugees from Europe. British attempts to stem the flow were condemned in the international press as heartless, and President Truman demanded the immediate entry of 100,000 Jewish refugees into Palestine in 1945 and 1946. Click on the link below to see this panel:
In February 1947 Britain placed the problem of Palestine before the United Nations to see if they could find a solution. A UN committee recommended the partition of Palestine into two states, and the British announced that they would leave the country on May 14, 1948. Click on the link below to see this panel:
Fighting between Arabs and Jews soon escalated into civil war. British families were evacuated, and the remaining Britons were guarded in wire enclosed security zones. Jewish forces went on the offensive, driving Arabs out from their villages and blowing up their homes to prevent their return. Click on the link below to see this panel:
On May 15 1948, the British left Palestine and the State of Israel was declared. It was attacked by the armies of five neighbouring Arab countries, but the new Jewish state held them at bay. Early in 1949 an armistice was signed; Israel gained three quarters of Palestine. Only 100,000 Palestinian Arabs managed to stay. Three quarters of a million Arabs had been driven out by Jewish forces, and over 260,000 Jewish refugees from European Displaced Persons camps arrived to make their home in Israel. Click on the link below to see this panel:
Frome in Palestine
This section tells the story from the local perspective, from the heady days of nineteenth-century Bible Lands enthusiasts and pilgrims to Great War soldiers, civil servants, Palestine policemen and people with Palestinian connections today.
21. Frome and the Holy Land
Nineteenth-century Frome took a keen interest in the Holy Land. A lively local branch of the Palestine Exploration Fund was set up in 1869. The Reverend Alfred Daniel, vicar of Holy Trinity, was the first secretary, and in 1902 his daughter-in-law Jane went on tour to Palestine. Her diary is full of interesting observations about the country at that time. Click on the link below to see this panel:
22. Bishop Blyth
Frome’s Ann Phillips is the great-granddaughter of George Blyth, who became Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem in 1886. Energetic and keen, Blyth raised money for many projects across his huge diocese, including the new St George’s Cathedral in Jerusalem. He was a bridge-builder, and impressed visitors with his ability to promote unity between people of different faiths. Click on the link below to see this panel:
23. The Maccabean Pilgrimage
In August 1897 Theodor Herzl established the World Zionist Organisation. Inspired by Herzl, the writer Israel Zangwill and the lawyer Herbert Bentwich organised a ‘Maccabean Pilgrimage’ from London to Palestine. The pilgrims included Avigdor and Cordelia Birnstingl, whose grandson Roger lives in Dilton Marsh. Click on the link below to see this panel:
24. Refuge in Palestine
The grandparents of Frome’s Elaine Pugsley were amongst the many Jews who fled persecution in Russia and went to Palestine. They met in Jaffa in 1912, and married there, but two years later, after war broke out, left for Egypt on the advice of the British. Simon joined the newly-formed Zion Mule Corps of the British Army and served in Gallipoli. He and his wife Elke settled in London after the war ended, where they lived for the rest of their lives. Click on the link below to see this panel:
25. Jerusalem for Christmas
The Somerset Light Infantry took part in the British invasion of Palestine in 1917 and many Frome soldiers fought with them. Two attacks on Gaza were repelled with heavy loss of life, and six months of stalemate and trench warfare ensued. General Allenby was appointed to lead the campaign, and the Prime Minister asked him to capture Jerusalem, “as a Christmas present for the British nation”, which he succeeded in doing. In Frome, the papers were delighted both with Allenby’s success and with the Balfour Declaration. The Bishop of Bath & Wells suggested that “restoring the Jewish nation to Palestine” would bring a blessing “upon the whole world.” Click on the link below to see this panel:
26. The Second Battle of Gaza
Two Frome soldiers have left us graphic accounts of the Second Battle of Gaza. Tank commander Lieutenant Maurice Shore of Whatley House, was awarded the Military Cross for showing ” great daring and gallantry” in command of his tank. A long letter from Corporal Frank Phillips, a printers’ reader at Butler & Tanner was published in the Somerset Standard on November 16 1917, but unbeknownst to them he was already dead. Click on the link below to see this panel:
27. “Our Men in Palestine”
This board remembers some of the local men who died in Palestine, and also some of those who came back to Frome. Click on the link below to see this panel:
28. Superintendent of the Census
Ann Phillips’ grandfather, John Bernard Barron, was Deputy Military Governor in Jericho in April 1918. Once civil administration was restored he became Director of Customs and Revenue. He was Superintendent of Palestine’s first full census in 1922, an enormous and controversial task. Click on the link below to see this panel:
29. Propping up the Patriarch
John Barron was also asked to sort out the finances of the impoverished Orthodox Church. It was a thankless job, and the Patriarch did his best to undermine his work. John Barron resigned at the end of March 1924, one of several senior British officials to leave in protest at what Arabs saw as High Commissioner Herbert Samuel’s pro Zionist policies. One newspaper described it as “The New Exodus”. Click on the link below to see this panel:
30. The British Front Line
The escalation of violence in the 1930s and 1940s led to a huge expansion in the numbers of people serving in the military and in the Palestine Police. By the end of 1946 Britain had 16,000 British and local police and more than 100,000 British troops stationed in Palestine. They came from every part of the country, and some had Frome connections. Len Pearce of Badcox enlisted in the Palestine Police in 1943. He served as armed escort to the High Commissioner and was sent on some secret and highly-sensitive missions, and on one occasion escorted Sir Winston Churchill’s daughter to the Sea of Galilee. His friend Ken Dayman-Johns was a military Despatch Rider, who in later life had many stories of his wartime experiences to tell his children in Nunney. Click on the link below to see this panel:
31. “We were fighting everybody”
The career of John Bedford’s father, John Bedford senior, is a bit of a mystery since he left home when John was only a baby, but we do know that he served with the Palestine Police and was mentioned in despatches. By contrast Michael Hobbs’ father Herbert kept all of his Palestine Police papers, which were on display in the exhibition. Click on the link below to see this panel:
32. Serving the Bedouin
Lord Oxford, from Mells, became Assistant District Commissioner in Gaza and Beersheba, an area which included the desert home of most of Palestine’s Bedouin population. He is remembered as having done much to assist the Bedouin. Click on the link below to see this panel:
33. “We left Palestine to Anarchy”
In 1945, Lord Oxford became private secretary to the last High Commissioner of Palestine. He left the country on the last day. ‘Many of us at the time thought it wrong to have relinquished our responsibilities in the way we did and to relinquish them when the consequences were so foreseeable”, he told the House of Lords many years later. Click on the link below to see this panel:
34. “Palestine was like Paradise to him”
Muhammed, the grandfather of Frome’s Nour Yassin, lived in Jaffa with his wife Safa and their nine children. In early 1948, when the Hagana were closing in on Jaffa and the British were confined to their fortified positions, Safa insisted that Muhammed take their son Abed to Damascus. On his way back to Jaffa, Muhammed met Safa coming the other way in one of his firm’s own trucks, together the rest of her family. They never saw Palestine again. Abed always felt very wronged about losing his home in Palestine, but when he talked about Palestine to Nour when she was little he would smile wistfully. ‘Palestine was like Paradise to him’. Click on the link below to see this panel:
35. The Destruction of Bayt Natiff
Mahmoud and Ameera Ghrouz came from Bayt Natiff, a village near Jerusalem which was first attacked by the Haganah in February 1948. It was finally bombed by the Israeli airforce on 19th October 1948 and depopulated two days later, The village was completely destroyed to prevent the return of Palestinian refugees. The couple ended up in the refugee camp at Al Aroub, where the family has lived ever since. Their grandson Issa Ghrouz, an epidemiologist, took many photographs of life in Al Aroub for Frome Friends of Palestine’s ‘Tale of Two Towns’ exhibition held in the Cheese and Grain in 2014, and we’re hoping that he will be able to visit Frome soon. Click on the link below to see this panel:
The Only Way to Peace
For the first time since the mass expulsions of 1948-9, the Jewish and Palestinian populations of Israel/Palestine are about equal. The people of historic Palestine have no choice but to live together. Jewish commentator Robert Cohen calls on the British government to back “the establishment in Israel/Palestine of a safe and secure home for all who live there.” Click on the link below to see this panel:
Exhibition on a Shoestring. How it all came together
The starting-point for ‘Frome in Palestine’ was the very excellent ‘Britain in Palestine’ exhibition, curated by Anne Lineen, who was responsible for the award-winning ‘Breaking the Chains’ exhibition at Bristol’s British Empire and Commonwealth Museum back in 2007. ‘Britain in Palestine’ was hosted by the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) in London in 2012, and amongst its visitors was Peter Clark, member of Frome Friends of Palestine and soon to be Chairman of Frome Society for Local Study. Peter was so impressed by the exhibition that he wanted to bring it lock, stock and barrel to Frome. Funding realities – and the problems of finding a venue large enough – soon put paid to that idea; but gradually a plan evolved to put on a scaled-down version of the SOAS exhibition and to supplement it with information about the relatives of local people who served in Palestine.
We tracked people down through a combination of appeals to the public and archive work. Peter Clark’s announcement to a record audience of 158 people at an FSLS talk in January 2016 led to no less than three people in the audience offering to dig out stuff relating to their families’ involvement (Hilary Daniel, Ann Phillips and Sylvia George). Jane Norris, branch Chairman of the British Legion, helped us to track down Sally Simms, daughter of Len Pearce, much-loved local writer who served in the Palestine Police. Cari Haysom, who made several trips to record offices in Taunton, London and elsewhere, managed to find several more people. Margaret Penfold, the leading authority on the Palestine Police, came down from Leicester to give a public talk at St Catharine’s Hall in January 2017, as a result of which we made contact with the sons of two local Palestine Policemen. And we enjoyed excellent coverage in the two town newspapers, especially the Frome Standard.
Finding the right venue was tricky. Frome Museum, after initially backing the project with enthusiasm, pulled out due to internal difficulties of its own, but for us this blow was a blessing in disguise since it forced us to find our own place. It was a bit of a challenge. Frome is bursting with excellent venues, but most of them have events on at least once or twice a week, often every day, and we needed somewhere to which we had exclusive access for a fortnight. We received various generous offers of spaces that were either too small, too cluttered or involved too many stairs, but in the end we opted for the gallery at the Silk Mill, and we could not have found anywhere better.
Money, too, was a problem. Fund-raising from conventional sources proved difficult. Our bid to the Heritage Lottery Fund was unsuccessful, perhaps because a lot of money had already been allocated to other WWI projects in the area, and we didn’t do much better elsewhere either. In fact the only grant we actually received was £100 from FSLS. This meant that we had to do everything on a shoe-string – but it also made us more resourceful. Frome Friends of Palestine are very good at fund-raising, and we organised two jumble sales in May and September 2017 which raised over £1500 for the cause. The exhibition cafe was a steady source of revenue, likewise the twelve-page summary booklet which we sold for a pound a pop, and the three evening events were also good sources of income. The total cost of the exhibition was £2797.58, and £1720.56 was raised during the exhibition itself, which was quite an achievement and testimony to the huge amount of hard work and dedication put into the project by so many people.
Cheap needn’t mean nasty. We couldn’t afford to get the exhibition boards professionally laminated, but our diligent treasurer managed to locate a bargain job-lot of pre-cut pieces of 4′ x 2′ hardboard, which was exactly the right size for our purposes. Each board was painted in terracotta by Rob in his barn at Nunney. Photographs and images were printed out on the treasurer’s domestic printer onto high-grade paper, and then laboriously and meticulously fixed to the boards with double-sided tape. Plenty of images were used to break up the text, including some very large and eye-catching posters, which helped people assimilate information more comfortably.
Design standards were as high as we could make them. We wanted the exhibition to look good, to develop a distinctive and attractive feel. We used the same font throughout, and the terracotta of the boards was picked up in other aspects of the exhibition such as the brochure, and above all the giant keys. When Palestinians were expelled from their homes, many managed to hang on to their old front-door keys, and consequently the key has become a symbol of the Palestinian right of return. For the exhibition, large keys were cut out of hardboard and painted in terracotta; two were hung over the main entrance to the gallery, and another, four feet long, was suspended beside the main entrance on King Street, and became a notable feature of the Frome streetscape for the duration.
We were very aware of the need to create a distinct and special sense of place. Partly because the subject-matter was intense and traumatic, we wanted to make the venue itself as welcoming and comfortable as possible so that people would feel inclined to come back and visit again (and many did). Arabic music played gently in the background, and we went overboard on textiles. Colourful drapes were suspended from the beams and served both as decor and draught-excluders. In the middle of the room we created a carpeted area of comfortable chairs, where people could sit and leaf through the interesting reading matter on the bookshelves, play unusual board games, eat or drink some very tasty home-made treats from the cafe, sit and talk to each other or to the volunteers (25 people came to fill our rota of 48 x two-hour slots, some from as far afield as Melksham) – or just simply to sit and be there. To keep us all warm, we hired a huge space-heater. It looked a bit like Stephenson’s Rocket and I nicknamed it Big Jumbo; his appetite for red diesel was slaked by donations from a local farmer. Big Jumbo wasn’t entirely a success. He broke down a couple of times; he made a lot of noise, and had to be placed in the right spot otherwise people were liable to be asphyxiated.
Objects bring the past to life, and several local people trusted us to display family heirlooms and memorabilia. Letters, photographs, medals, a mother-of-pearl Palestine Police sweetheart brooch, a Turkish bayonet brought back from Palestine after the Great War and later used for spearing farm-rats, signed copies of Israel Zangwill’s books, amongst many other curious items. Finding cases to display them all in was a bit of a headache. We had several false leads, but thanks to the good offices of Brian Marshall and Hilary Daniel, we finally managed to winkle an old-fashioned but serviceable tabletop case from the Museum vaults. Brian also tipped us off about the imminent closure of the antique shop at Badcox and we were able to borrow a couple of glass-fronted cabinets. It was a ramshackle array, but adequate and secure.
As well as the exhibition itself, we had two computer monitors with a range of relevant videos, including the Balfour Project’s ‘Britain in Palestine 1917-1948’, a short but excellent introduction to the situation; a compilation of clips from old newsreel and documentaries put together by members of the group, recent footage taken by a local human rights observer, and a powerful and impassioned monologue by Holly Law, then 18, who went to Bi’lin in her gap year. (online here: https://vimeo.com/146853874). And we also put on a series of events. The exhibition was formally opened by the current Lord Oxford at a packed evening event, followed by a talk from Dr Peter Shambrook, a historian and an expert on the background to the Balfour Declaration. With the producer’s blessing, we screened Peter Kosminsky’s gripping four-part docu-drama The Promise over two consecutive nights. On another evening we entertained almost a hundred people to a huge supper prepared by our members (FFP is famous for its food), after which we filed out into the rain to witness another local celebrity, Graham Dews, whose artwork is to be seen all over town, put the finishing touches to a mural inspired by the Israel/Palestine situation on a wall twenty yards from the Silk Mill, inside a derelict building in Saxonvale. Graham worked on Banksy’s famous Walled-off Hotel project in Bethlehem, and he told us that Saxonvale reminded him of the bleak desolation of the Separation Wall itself.
People came. Lots and lots of them. On the last Saturday we had several hundred visitors, and there was rarely a time when there wasn’t at least one person walking around, intently taking it all in. Because of the local connection, we had large numbers of visitors who would never normally come near an event like this, and it’s a transferable concept. Since so many British people served in Palestine, every town or city will have its crop of relatives. There will be plenty of Palestine-related centenaries coming up over the next few years. Frome’s pioneering fusion of local, national and international history could work for other towns as well.
Credits and Acknowledgements
Lots and lots of people were involved in making this exhibition happen, doing everything from providing information about family members, archival research to stewarding and organising the events. In alphabetical order, thanks very much to
Telche abu Sulltan
The Dayman-Johns family
We gratefully acknowledge the good people of Holy Trinity Church for the loan of several screens, the Museum of Frome for the loan of a case, Frome Society for Local Study for a grant of £100, and the folk at the Silk Mill for general helpfulness.
For the ‘Britain in Palestine’ section of the online exhibition, we would like to thank the following individuals and institutions for permission to use material from their collections:
Dr Salman abu Sitta, Palestine Land Society, http://www.plands.org/en/home
Mr Hassan Eltaher, http://www.eltaher.org
Imperial War Museum, https://www.iwm.org.uk/
King’s Own Royal Regiment Museum, Lancaster, http://www.kingsownmuseum.com/
Library of Congress, Washington DC, https://www.loc.gov/
Will McArthur, www.glescapals.com.
Middle East Centre Archive, St Antony’s College, Oxford, https://www.sant.ox.ac.uk/research-centres/middle-east-centre/mec-archive
The National Archives, Kew, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/
Oberlin College Archives, http://www2.oberlin.edu/archive/
Palestine Exploration Fund, https://www.pef.org.uk/
Royal Society for Asian Affairs, London, https://rsaa.org.uk/
Professor Salim Tamari, Institute of Palestine Studies, https://www.palestine-studies.org/
University of Bristol Special Collections, http://www.bristol.ac.uk/library/special-collections/
Victoria and Albert Museum, London, https://www.vam.ac.uk/
Photographs by Messrs J.D. Martin, H.W Cornelius, L Ketnor and R Nunn, all of whom served in the Palestine Police, were used in the 2012 exhibition and are reproduced again here. It has not been possible to track down the current copyright holders but if you can help us do so please get in touch: firstname.lastname@example.org